The current epidemic of drug abuse has touched all levels of society. Addiction treatment providers, the court system, mental health agencies, behavioral health services, law enforcement, and the overall everyday work-environment are all increasingly called on to identify, monitor, and treat persons with drug abuse episodes and addiction issues. eRAMx offers our Patented solutions (Patent No. US 8,617,066 B2) for both Oral Swab testing and Rapid-Eye testing.[button text=”About Remote Drug Testing” url=”https://eramxlive.com/about-remote-drug-testing/” color=”dark blue”]
Oral Swab Testing
eRAMx has designed an interactive drug testing platform designed for testing for substance abuse that provides an immediate test result by virtual visual analysis. The eRAMx platform is a new and innovative patented technology solution, which allows for a smarter, more efficient, and a more cost-effective approach to administer oral swab testing. The eRAMx smart supervision mobile application allows for interactive visual (2-way) and voice (2-way) engagement between a trained observer and a testing subject through a patented, proprietary, HIPAA-compliant software platform. The eRAMx mobile application is compatible with both iOS and Android platforms.
Our system includes a web-based software platform which is accessed through a central computer, i.e., desktop/laptop machine operated by a trained observer and a remote mobile phone device carried by a testing subject. Each remote device, as well as the central computer, include means for receiving a video feed over a network connection such that a testing subject located at a remote location can use its video camera to bi-directionally communicate with a person located at the desktop/laptop location. In application, the testing subject faces the video camera so that the operator at the central computer location can witness the testing and results in real time. It is important for purposes of testing integrity, that during the entire testing process, the test specimen is never removed from view of the camera and the observer stationed at the central computer such that the observer at the desktop/laptop can view the testing samples to determine whether the test is negative or non-negative result.
The eye is the easiest part of the body to examine for drug influence. It is located next to the brain and is essentially part of the (CNS) Central Nervous System. Any drug that affects the CNS almost always has an influence on the eye. Because proper eye function requires precise actions of very-small nerves and muscles, even small doses of some drugs disturb normal physiologic processes and produce eye signs.
Numerous studies and clinical reports document the principal effects of commonly abused drugs on the eye. Most of these effects can be easily detected by a simple, one-minute rapid eye test that has been formalized to assist in the detection and management of those who abuse drugs.
It is important to have an accurate baseline of the participants eyes before drawing conclusions from a rapid eye test. An accurate baseline should consist of an evidentiary-type testing procedure at the time the individual is enrolled in the eRAMx System. Components of rapid eye test for drug abuse include but are not limited to the following…
Pupil Reaction To Light Stimulus
What to look for…
- Horizonal and Vertical Nystagmus – Failure to hold gaze, jerkiness of movements when instructing the participant to move their eyes horizontally to the left and to the right; vertically up and down
- Non-Convergence – Inability to track or hold the cross-eyed position when instructing the participant to touch their index-finger to their nose
- Pupil Comparison – Dilation and/or constriction of the pupil
The rapid eye test should be performed in a quiet, private setting so as not to distract the participant. It can be performed in ordinary room light with the subject standing or sitting. The test consists of five parts: (1) general observation, (2) measurement of pupil size, (3) observation of pupil reaction to light, (4) testing for nystagmus, and (5) testing for convergence. The eRAMx process is illustrated in a video found in the Rapid-Eye testing under Solutions on this same website.
Common Eye Signs
Below are specific changes in pupils, eye motion, or vision that can indicate intoxication or overdose from specific substances…
Alcohol: Intoxication can cause double vision or blurry vision.
Amphetamines: Ecstasy, Molly, MDMA, and similar drugs can cause blurred vision and changes in pupil size. These drugs can also cause rapid quivering of the pupils (Nystagmus).
Benzodiazepines: These medications can cause dilated pupils.
Cocaine and crack cocaine: As the drug stimulates the brain and releases endorphins and adrenaline, the body will react by dilating the pupils.
Dextromethorphan: A commonly cough-suppressing ingredient in cold and flu medicines, this substance can cause intoxication. A symptom of DXM abuse is rapid, involuntary eye movement called nystagmus.
Hallucinogens: Mescaline, LSD, and other, similar drugs cause the pupils to dilate.
Heroin: This drug will cause the pupils to constrict, leading to pinpoint pupils.
Inhalants: Abusing substances like paint thinner or nitrous in canisters can lead to watering and red eyes as a sign of intoxication.
Ketamine: Rapid, involuntary eye movement and dilated pupils are symptoms of intoxication from this narcotic-like drug. Ketamine can also cause visual impairment, like alcohol.
Marijuana: Bloodshot eyes are on of the most common side effects of marijuana intoxication.
Methamphetamine: One of the symptoms of methamphetamine intoxication is rapid eye movements – movements that are usually about 10 times faster than average eye movement.
Narcotics: Both legal and illicit narcotic drugs – including heroin, hydrocodone, morphine, and fentanyl – constrict the pupils. At high doses, one of the symptoms of overdose is pinpoint pupils that do not respond to changes in light.
PCP (phencyclidine): Rapid eye movements that are involuntary. A person intoxicated on PCP may also develop a blank stare, during which they do not respond to direct visual stimuli.